Tag Archives: Hindu Philosophy

GURU ~ Swami Chinmayananda

[Excerpts from talks and commentaries by Swami Chinmayananda]

GURU — its sweep of suggestiveness is so vast as to even replace at times the sacred syllable – OM !! What do we know, in our present state of imperfection, about the super-subtle qualities of a great teacher? Truly great souls are indeed, at any given period of history, very rare, and, therefore, it is not always possible for all people to come into contact with such perfect masters. And even when we come in contact with them, it is extremely difficult to recognise their greatness and to tune ourselves fully to them. In case we meet and recognise a master and learn to diligently come under his beneficial influences, they are unerringly infallible.

One who has realised in himself the great “awakening” and has come to experience the one unconditioned Truth beyond the causal, subtle and gross bodies and who, thereafterwards, continues to teach the same Truth to others is the Teacher – the GURU, who helps the disciple to experience the Truth. The great ones, the grand teachers, are those who have realised fully their oneness with the Supreme. When the time is ripe, the Lord in a mysterious way brings about first the communication and ultimately the communion between the teacher and the taught. GURU is that equipment through which we perceptibly hear echoes of our own heart’s Divine Message as though from outside! One who has the “ears” can recognise the foot-steps of the Tandava Dance, that is constantly going on in the heart of the Master!!

If the world is peopled by a generation that requires the service of a Master, the total demand of the community works through him and he comes down to serve. Each seeker must remain where he is, and with true devotion progressively purify himself, keeping constantly a deep and consistent inner demand for a teacher. To such a seeker, living the honest life of a Sadhaka, the teacher will appear to guide him. Whoever be the person, let the seeker understand that the teacher is none other than Sree Narayana in that particular form. No individual mortal is ever a preceptor. The Lord alone is the Teacher, everywhere at all times. Meeting your Guru is a mystery! —- is a miracle!! Guru’s grace itself is God’s grace, since Guru is none other than Narayana Himself. 

Guru is a personality, not a person. He is an institution, not an individual. It is the Sastra that is the Guru, and the Guru is the one who taught you to learn it. He made us understand how to study Sastras and understand it.The true preceptor to all of us is the Lord, and the Lord of our heart talks to us very often through His chosen deputy among us and we revere Him and worship Him as manifesting through that individual. In your attempt to LIVE the Divine Life, your Guru, be he far or near will each time save you from the after-effects of falls and encourage you to continue the sacred pilgrimage towards God-head. Such a living guide alone is a true Sat-Guru. 

To come under the protection of a Mahapurusha……. you can order everything…. you can’t hunt a Guru. None of you can know who is the Guru. The qualities of the Guru are so subtle….greater the Guru, smaller he looks, humble and simple. Real Mahatmas, they always secretly live, nobody knows that he is there. How am I to know….? There is no question of you running after a Guru. The Guru comes to us. Never can a disciple go to the Guru. Guru always comes to you. First you open up yourself. Stay where you are, where the Lord has kept you…. Never mind, stay where you are…open up…..open up……. purify your mind. The right time the Guru comes to you as the bee comes to the flower! In case a Guru takes you in his hands, takes you under his wings, to protect you, guide you, to lead you – that is the Greatest Blessings!

“HIMAGIRI STATION” – it is a 24-hour-relay Broadcast-station! The Mahatmas in Samadhi are even to-day sending out, day and night, Spiritual Waves of Light Power, Wisdom and Grace! Even today, it is an unwritten tradition in the Himalayas, that all Mahatmas there, during the Brahma-muhurtha time, meditate facing South and the seekers in the country are expected to meditate at the same auspicious hour, sitting down, facing North, towards the Himalayas. The Supreme Reality Itself is the Guru. This Truth is Itself conceived as Sri Dakshinamurthi. The Teacher and the Lord are thus considered as one. Thus, the Guru is the manifest symbol of the primordial Truth and to Him our prostrations.

ध्यानमूलं गुरोर्मूर्तिः पूजामूलं गुरोः पदम् ।
मन्त्रमूलं गुरोर्वाक्यं मोक्षमूलं गुरोः कृपा ॥  (Guru Geeta)

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Significance of Navaratri ~ by Swami Chinmayananda

[Excerpts from a letter by Swami Chinmayananda]

The DUSSEHRA festival is celebrated throughout the country. During this festival, everyone spends his time in worship, devotion, and study of the Sastras, and every house assumes the sanctity of a temple. The ten days are divided into three stages of three days each, for worship, and the culmination of the festival on the tenth day is called VIJAYA DASAMI.

The first 3 days we invoke Mother Durga, the “Power Terrible” to help us, by eliminating from within us all negative forces, all weaknesses; followed by the constructive efforts at the organisation of order and security by the patronage and growth of the Divine Forces in us. Lakshmi, she is the Goddess of Aishwarya: Devi Sampath. She is the embodiment of Love, Charity, Kindness, Devotion, Tolerance, Patience, Endurance, Vairagya, Viveka, Peace, Tranquility, Honesty, Courage, Faith, and Mumukshutva! These are to be engendered, and the vacancies created by the elimination of the negative qualities must be filled by these positive traits. Hence the Lakshmi Puja for 3 days following the Kali Puja of the first 3 days. When a Jiva on his march has thus purified himself, and gets recharged with the Devi Sampath, he is a fit Adhikari – a fit student – to be initiated into the philosophical side of Religion, the Supreme Reality, the State of Sat-Chit-Ananda, the Padavi of “Sivoham”. The Goddess of Jnana, Devi Saraswati is invoked. Her Veena is tuned within when the heart-strings are polished “off” its clogs – the Asuric Sampath. The strings are “tuned” when the inner heart-strings are adjusted with the cultivated Devi Sampath. In the resulting shanti, the soft floating tunes waft from within as the Lady of Veena passes Her tender fingers blessingly over the heart-strings. The music is the magic touch that turns the Premi into Prem! the Lover into Love!! The Siva bhakta melts in that MUSIC of the within and becomes one with Siva – the final waking from the dream of samsar into the fact that I am the Knowledge in Itself, Pure Existence beyond Time, Space and Causality. As Sri Saraswati sings Her divine song of Joy, the Kalyana Muhurtha is on! Now, “I am Siva! I am He! He am I !!” This is the great Victory – the Total Victory, the VIJAYAM.

Mother Durga is invoked by worshiping her for 3 days. Man merely invokes his own power which lies dormant within, to discover and destroy the negative forces lurking in his bosom. Destroying one’s evil tendencies is only a negative approach to spirituality. So, the next stage is to practice the positive aspect of the Sadhana. This is done by Sri Lakshmi Puja for the next 3 days. Lakshmi is the Goddess of Aishwarya. Aishwarya is not to be understood in the narrow sense of material wealth and possessions alone but as including the divine wealth of love, kindness, devotion, patience, endurance, charity, ahimsa and the like. Again, these are not to be gained from without, but are to be engendered from within by the invocation of the Goddess within ourselves. By the end of these 3 days, these divine qualities should replace the devilish tendencies which had usurped and enveloped our bosom. With the development of the divine traits, the seeker is fully qualified and becomes an Adhikari for philosophical study, contemplation and meditation. The invocation of Saraswati, the Goddess of Knowledge, is therefore, the last and the final stage in the spiritual evolution of man. Just as she brings out the music and melody from her well-tuned veena, one can manifest the divinity and harmony with a well integrated mind, by the study of the sastras, constant reflection and meditation. After the 3 stages are gone through, on the last Vijaya Dasami Day, the devil is burnt down indicating the “transcendence of ego”, when man attains the great victory – VIJAYA – over his sense-life and revels in the ecstatic experience of the Transcendental Reality!  

Dussehra indicates as the word suggests, DASA-PAPA-HARA, the end or liquidation of ten sins. The ten sins are attributed to the 10 sense-organs through which the mind contacts and gains knowledge of the phenomenal world, and also reacts to the stimuli received from the world of objects. Therefore the idea is that on this sacred day, the ten sins are ended which signifies the end of the mind and therefore the end of the world of plurality when one becomes rooted in the Transcendental Experience – the Vijaya Dasami Day, the day of Sree Parameswara Prapthi!!          The 9 days Pooja ends in the Great Grand festivity and Joy inexpressible, on the 10th day – the Vijaya Dasami Day. The 9 days Devi Pooja has removed the 9 great sins of man. The 10th day ends the last of his sins and the mortal limited man in himself discovers that he is God! Live thy Life of Dasara! Burn down the ugly monstrous Rakshasa Roopa that we had ourselves built up in the previous nights; and in joy and revelry, dance round the wrecked blazing Monster — the “I”.  The great Victory — the Vijaya! The Home-Coming — the great Vijaya Dasami Day!

“Dasa hara” is the victory over the senses – means, end of Mind; which ends in the disappearance of the dreadful shadow “I”. When the mind is “off”, what remains is the Blissful, the Omnipotent and Omniscient mass of Beauty and Grandeur, the Supreme Mother! Make thy life a Mahanavami Celebration! With songs and dance, with puja and worship, with feasting and illumination, with Japa and Tapa, invoke the Powers of the Self, the Eternal Nature of Thee! Sivoham! Bring about a Dasara in Thy life – celebrate the life’s Vijaya Dasami – through Purushartha, which in the bhakta is not a stupendous task of adventure and strife, but a pleasure Puja Festival — a Mahanavami Celebration

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Importance of Temples – 3 Dhwaja-stambha and Sanctum

In the courtyard of the temple, right in front of the sanctum is the DHWAJA-STAMBHA – the flag post. It is perfectly aligned with the deity in the sanctum. It is a tall metallic or metallic coated structure. On the top of the dhwaja-stambha is a flag like structure constituted of three horizontal metallic strips with tiny bells suspended from them. The three prongs (flag) are directed towards the sanctum and represent peace, victory and power. They also represent the Trimurtis. The metallic structure again helps in drawing the energy from the cosmos. During the important utsavas, a ceremonial flag is hoisted (Dhwajaarohana) to indicate to everyone about the utsava event. There are various deities consecrated in the temple complex, in different directions, around the main sanctum. But all of them are well within the area marked by the dhwaja-stambha at the circumference. Hence it is customary to go around (pradakshina) starting from the dhwaja-stambha, keeping the Lord at the centre, in a clockwise direction, come back to the dhwaja-stambha and then offer prostrations to all the deities at the dhwaja-stambha preferably facing East or North. Prostrations are not offered in the sanctum. The dhwaja-stambha represents the base of the spinal cord and the deity represents the face (head) in our physical body-structure – in one line. The bali peetam is where the naivedyam is offered to the presiding deities of the various directions. In its significance, as the name suggests, it represents the platform on which all our negativities are to be sacrificed before entering the sanctum for the Lord’s darshan. The vast courtyard gives sufficient time for a pilgrim to stay within the energy-system and benefit from the same.

The main or MAHA MANTAPA is where the various utsavas are held. Music concerts, Nritya events, Bhajan melas, Discourses on Epics, Puranas, Scriptures are also held in the maha mantapa. Through the ARDHA MANTAPA, we reach the sanctum or the sannidhi of the Lord. In some temples, there is provision for an innermost parikrama also, very close to the deity. 
The SANCTUM (garbha-griha) is small compared to the huge temple complex. To enter the garbha-griha or the space nearest to it, is to enter into the “cave or womb” (garbha) of our own physical body (griha). The doors of the sanctum also are not wide. This is to contain the divine energy of the deity. The deity (vigraha or idol) is sculpted with stone; and the size, form, features and all other minute details are strictly according to the Sastras. The prana-pratishta or the installation of the deity is performed by invoking the powers of the deity through appropriate chants and hymns, rituals and homas. At the base of the idol, along with the various materials, metallic strips, gold, and precious gems are also embedded for enhancement of the energy-system.

The gopuram directly on top of the deity is known as VIMANA. The Kalasha on top of the Vimana helps channelize the cosmic energy and direct it to the deity. In turn the divine vibrations of the deity reaches the pilgrims in the temple complex through the kalasha, which acts both as an absorber and emitter. Vimana means “without maana or without ego”. The Vimana also represents the physical human structure. It indicates that an individual who is able to transcend his ego in the auspicious presence of the Lord surely reaches the Highest State of Mukti. In many of the ancient temples, a straight line from the top of the Mahadwara, inclined downward at an appropriate angle grazes the top of the dwaja-stambha and reaches the centre of the eyebrows of the deity – the spiritual yatra of a seeker from the external materialistic world to the inner spiritual domain!!

It is an all-round spiritual therapy or healing – a detoxifying process for the pilgrim inside the temple complex which culminates in the worship and rituals in the divine presence of the Lord. It is a physio-psycho-spiritual therapy! And there is a drishti-shabda-gandha-sparsha-ruchi (visual-audio-aroma-touch-taste) therapy also!! The entire charged atmosphere within the temple complex energizes the pilgrim totally and completely. The soft breeze, the rustling sound coming from the peepul trees along with the cool and comfortable shade under its canopy, the pleasant tinkling sound of the bells of the dhwaja-stambha – all contribute to the spiritual dimensions of the pilgrim.

The sanctum is dark, and the deity is to be seen only in the light of the ghee lamps. The deity gathers to itself an “aliveness” in the flickering light of the lamps. Whereas in the artificial electric light, the idol seems frozen. Not only this demands more attention and focussing on the part of the pilgrim to have the darshan of the deity, but it has a profound, inexplicable soothing effect on the eyes. The chanting of mantras and hymns, the ringing of the bells, the blowing of the conch take care of the audio/vocal aspect. The fragrance of the ghee from the lamps, the flowers and leaves (patra) used for the Lord, the fragrance of the chandana and bhasma, the camphor, the teertha and prasada contribute to aroma therapy. The teertha and prasada take care of “rasa or taste” therapy as well. The slight and soft movement of the warm air inside the sanctum, the warmth of the arati-flame and the touch of the teertha felt by the hand contribute to the sparsha aspect. All this significantly helps in elevating the bhava or state of the mind. The dress-code and the body posture while walking, sitting or prostrating reinforce the same. And Mudra-therapy is automatically taken care of whilst we fold our hands in prayer and prostrations, or when we offer flowers or accept the teertha or prasada. 

To come out of the sanctum, lift our gaze and have the darshan of the Vimana and offer our prostrations at the dhwaja-stambha is the total and complete fulfillment of our Spiritual Pilgrimage – a Yatra which signifies our inner journey to the Beyond!
“PILGRIMAGE is a very powerful means of self-purification; for, if the pilgrim has eyes and ears to watch and experience the beauty and majesty of Nature, then his capacity to contemplate explodes within himself and he reaches hitherto unknown heights. The TEMPLE is a place conducive to “fine-tune” your mental equipment in order to receive the Divine Message” ~ Swami Chinmayananda

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Importance of Temples – 2 Mahadwara and Courtyard

The entire temple complex is an excellent, vast positive energy field. Most of the temples were built near the ocean, rivers or large lakes. Temples were associated with the seat of power. They also functioned as education and art centers, and provided shelter, food and water for travellers.  The main aspects of a temple are as follows: we enter the MAHADWARA (the main entrance) which has the tallest GOPURA and then move further through the smaller DOORWAYS with small GOPURAMS to reach the PRAANGANA or the COURTYARD of the temple. The DHWAJA-STAMBHA along with the BALI-PEETA are located in the courtyard right in front of the sanctum. Next comes the MAHA MANTAPA with its exquisitely carved pillars and then the ARDHA MANTAPA, which is arch-shaped. Finally one arrives at the GARBHA GRIHA or the Sanctum Santorum with the VIMANA or SIKHARA on the top. All of them – mahadwara to the garbha griha with the vimana – are in ONE STRAIGHT LINE and they represent the physical body structure in the horizontal position (lying-down position). 

The mahadwara represents the feet of the Lord, the various prakaras and their doorways represent the various layers of Matter-vestures around an individual. The dhwaja-stambha represents the bottom of the spinal cord, the maha mantapa represents the belly, ardha mantapa the chest and garbha griha the face. Finally the vimana represents the head. The dhwaja-stambha which represents the end of the spinal cord signifies the mooladhara chakra and the vimana signifies the sahasrara chakra. Hence during puja or meditation, an individual is expected to keep the head, neck and back absolutely straight. The lower portion of the body (represented by the dhwaja-stambha upto the mahadwara) is in sitting position – sukhasana or padmasana. This indicates that the extroverted-ness has been contained and the seeker has become introverted. Therefore, entering the temple and reaching the sanctum signifies the spiritual pilgrimage from the lower to the Higher within oneself – an evolutionary process.

The Science of Temple Building – Vastu and Shilpa Sastra were strictly followed in the construction of the temple. The dimensions and architectural design of the temple complex ensured complete harmony between Nature and the temple complex, as well as harmony between the temple and the pilgrims. The height of the deity, the dhwaja-stambha and the main gopura are inter-related. Aestheticism, beauty, symmetry, stability, coherence, astronomy, astrology, art-forms like sculpturing, painting, music, dance and drama, rhythm, inclusiveness, integrity, light-sound-air-flow management through the various structures and temple-tanks were an intrinsic and integral part of the temple-construction.

MAHADWARA represents the feet of the Lord. The main entrance with its high walls and tallest gopuram (many temples have four entrances – one in each direction) denote the boundary within which the electro-magnetic fields are very strong. The entire city is laid out around the temple and hence known as TEMPLE-CITY. In fact, the streets around the temple are known as North Temple Street, East Temple Street etc depending on their direction with respect to the temple. The Main Tower is also known as Maha Gopura, which means: City or Store-House (Pura) of Knowledge (Go). It consists of a specific number of tiers and is inlaid with stories and illustrations from epics and puranas. An odd number of Kalashas made of gold or gold-plated metal adorn the top of the gopuram. The height facilitates the drawing or absorption of the cosmic energy by the kalashas. Not only are they excellent absorbers but good emitters too. They continuously radiate the cosmic energy in all directions for the benefit of all. Hence it was customary not to have any building in the city taller than the gopuram. The kalashas also act as good lightning conductors. In many of the ancient temples, the kalashas are supposed to be connected through unseen metallic strips to the deity in the sanctum. As one crosses the threshold of the Mahadwara, a few seconds right under the vast and spacious Maha Gopura is extremely rejuvenating! One cannot but feel a sense of freshness and liveliness under its umbrella!!

The outermost parikrama (going round the temple) beyond the mahadwara is also known as Nagara Pradakshina. The temple utsavas, collective sankirtan and bhajans are a part of the Nagara Pradakshina.

TEMPLE COURTYARD: On crossing the mahadwara, and the inner prakaras, there is the spacious courtyard of the temple with the dhwaja-stambha right in front of the sanctum. It is customary to perform the Parikrama or Pradakshina starting from the dhwaja-stambha and back. Parikrama means “to put forth steps with the full awareness of the Divine Presence of the Lord”. Pradakshina means “to keep the Lord on our right side” while going round. This is to ensure that we receive the divine vibrations of the deity emanating from all sides of the sanctum. We keep the Lord to our right, because our right side represents Purusha Tattva (Energy Aspect). Pradakshina is undertaken bare-foot. This helps the pressure-points on the feet to get activated. Also in ancient temples, there are metal strips concealed within the ground in the courtyard. This helps absorption of positive energy from the ground below.


Next Post: Significance of Dwaja-stambha, Mantapams and the Sanctum.

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