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Sri Veda Vyasa ~ Swami Chinmayananda

[Excerpts from articles and commentaries by Swami Chinmayananda]

VYASA is the Pivotal Truth, the Substratum, the very Rock-Foundation of the entire spring of the Indian Culture based on the Vedantic Philosophy. Vyasa is a great poet-philosopher and has become an institution representing the Hindu heritage. He was a great student of the Vedas and a Man of Realisation. Not only was Vyasa’s intellect mighty, but he was completely tolerant, holding in his embrace of love the entire universe of living beings. No scriptural study or Vedic chanting is ever started without prostrations unto this greatest of Seers. If we must attribute Hinduism to any single individual there is none else to whom we can most appropriately attribute its present existence and past glories except to Veda Vyasa.

Vyasa was not merely a man of realisation and perfection, but was also one who had the spirit of adventure to serve his generation throughout his life. He was a revivalist who contributed the maximum to the Hindu Renaissance of that critical era. He was the most daring religious revolutionary that ever appeared on the horizon of Hindu cultural history. Vyasa was one of the sages who had a vast vision of the past and the great imagination to see the future both of which he brought forth in order to tackle the problems of decadence in his immediate present. 

Hinduism came to face a great crisis in its spiritual and cultural history created by a decadent society and its own misinterpretations of its great culture. A restatement of the scriptural truths, in a language and spirit understandable to the people, was the demand of the age and Vyasa came to answer this call. At such a crucial juncture in our spiritual history that we find the advent of the great revolutionary reformer, the poet-philosopher, Vyasa. He retrieved the life-giving gems of wisdom that lay almost unnoticed in the bowels of the then existing social confusions and life’s commotions. He collected the Vedic passages and for the first time edited them into four written volumes which constitute today the four great Vedas of the Hindus: the Rig Veda, the Yajur Veda, the Sama Veda and the Atharvana Veda, and thereafter gave us the dialectics of Vedanta in his Brahma Sutras. Himself a great man of realisation, this ancient seer had both the mastery in the theoretical science of religion in Hinduism and also the practical experience of the Supreme. 

Vyasa was a complete artist. Unhurriedly he works on; nowhere is he hasty. In almost every stanza, he not only exhibits his literary mastery over the use of words, but also employs them with such precision that often his simple-looking words, in their right context, talk volumes to all careful students. The versatile genius of Vyasa never left anything that he touched without raising it to​ the most sublime heights of sheer perfection with his rare capacity of composing incomparable poetry, unique prose-diction, chaste descriptions, artistic literary designs, original innovations both in thought and form. A brilliant philosopher, a consummate man of wisdom, a genius in worldly knowledge — now in the palace, now in the battle field, now in Badrinath, now among the silent snowy peaks — strode the colossus, Sri Vyasa, as an embodiment of what is best in the Hindu tradition and in the Aryan culture. Yet, Vyasa’s philosophical thought is not sectarian or creedal. It is not a philosophy only for Hindus. It is universal in its application and is addressed to all mankind. Such an all round genius has not yet been reported ever to have born, lived or achieved in the History Globe!!

व्यासाय विष्णु रूपाय व्यासरूपाय विष्णवे I
नमो वै ब्रह्मनिधये वासिष्ठाय नमो नमः II

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Sri Rama Paduka Pattabhisheka

Sri Rama along with his consort Seeta and brother Lakshmana went to the forest in exile for 14 years to keep up the promise king Dasaratha, his father had made to his wife, Kaikeyi. Unable to bear the seperation from his son, Dasaratha breathed his last. At the unusual turn of events, Guru Vashishta urgently summoned Bharata who had gone to visit his maternal uncle. Bharata returned to Ayodhya only to find the city of joy absolutely silent. People looked lost and sad. Strange! The situation in the palace was no better. He quickly made his way to his mother, Kaikeyi’s chamber. On enquiring, she narrated everything to him, and finally said, “the throne awaits you, my dear son. Get ready for your pattabhisheka!”

Bharata was stunned. He was overwhelmed with grief and pain. In a fit of anger, he totally disowned his mother. Because of her, he had lost his father. His brother Rama whom he loved, adored and worshipped had been sent to the forest, along with Seeta and Lakshmana. He wept bitterly and cried his heart out at the feet of Rama’s mother, Kausalya. The gracious mother of Rama was sad and grief-stricken at the loss of her husband and seperation from her son; but felt happy to see the devotion and loyalty that Bharata had towards his elder brother, Rama. 

After the final rites of his father, Bharata was called upon by Guru Vashishta to ascend the throne and take up the responsibilities of the kingdom. In the royal assembly, Bharata with tears in his eyes, yet, surely and firmly, told everyone, that Sri Rama alone was the rightful heir to the throne and there was absolutely no question of him becoming the king. He pleaded innocence and said that he had nothing to do with his mother’s devious plans. He requested everyone to accompany him to the forest to convince Rama to return to Ayodhya. He made all the necessary arrangements to crown Rama as the King of Ayodhya in the forest itself and bring him back! Kaikeyi understood the devotion and reverence Bharata had for Rama, and repented sincerely for her wrong doings. 

Bharata and his brother Shatrughna, Sage Vashishta, the queen mothers and the people of Ayodhya proceeded to the forest, and reached Chitrakoota where Rama, Seeta and Lakshmana had settled down. The moment Bharata saw Rama, he ran forward and fell at his brother’s feet, weeping profusely for all the hardships that Rama had to undergo in the forest. He totally blamed himself for it. Unable to reconcile with what had happened, he was just inconsolable. Rama tenderly lifted him up and held him in a tight embrace. That hug was enough to pacify, console and calm down Bharata’s agitated mind. Yet, in his mind was the fear whether Rama would accept his proposal and return to Ayodhya. 

Next day, an assembly was arranged in the forest. Along with the others, King Janaka was also present. All eyes were on Bharata. Every one was anxious to see the outcome of the meeting. Bharata put forth his humble request and tried to convince Rama to return. When Rama did not yield, he respectfully pleaded, later he gently argued and even lovingly debated with Rama! Sri Rama was equally firm on his decision to keep up his words. All those present were overwhelmed at the love and affection that Rama and Bharata had for each other. Guru Vashishta and King Janaka put forth their views on the duties and responsibilities of a King. Kaikeyi stepped forward and unconditionally withdrew the demand she had made. But for Rama, there was no question of going back on his words.

Not losing hopes, Bharata pleaded, “How can I ever sit on the throne that belongs to you, dear brother? You alone are the rightful heir to the kingdom and can handle its huge responsibility, I simply cannot.” He even told Rama that he would substitute for him and stay in the forest for 14 years on his behalf, and that Rama should go back to Ayodhya. The Lord understood Bharata’s feelings. Rama replied, “Alright! I accept the kingdom from you. As the King of Ayodhya, I now declare you as king-in-charge. You will rule and look after the kingdom for 14 years on my behalf. After the completion of the exile term, I promise to come and take back the kingdom from you.” 

Bharata was sweetly adamant! He said, “O! Rajendra, give me your PADUKAS, which shall be worshipped in the kingdom. I shall serve both – your padukas and the people till you return. In your absence, they shall adorn the throne in your place, not me! I shall as a mere sevak of yours, execute and discharge my duties and responsibilities towards the people of the kingdom as best as I can, keeping in mind your honour, dignity and glory (paduke dehi rajendra, rajyaya tava pujithe; tayo sevam karomyeva, yavath agamanam tava ~ Adhyatma Ramayana).”

Rama’s heart melted in the warmth of Bharata’s love and devotion, his steadfastness and loyalty. Overwhelmed with joy, the Lord exclaimed, “Bharata, I am indeed fortunate and blessed to have a brother like you!”. The Lord agreed to Bharata’s loving insistence and readily handed over his Padukas to him, with an assurance that he will be back in Ayodhya exactly after 14 years. Still not satisfied, Bharata added that the very next moment, after 14 years, if he failed to see the divinely charming face of Sri Rama, he would consign himself to flames. Rama assured him that he would be back exactly after 14 years.

Carrying Sri Rama’s Padukas reverentially on his head, and the Lord’s loving assurance in his heart, Bharata returned to Ayodhya along with the others. The people of Ayodhya witnessed a unique and grand PADUKA PATTABHISHEKA! Sri Rama’s Padukas adorned the throne. Ayodhya without Rama was unthinkable for Bharata. He stayed in Nandigram on the outskirts of Ayodhya. He gave up all the royal luxuries and lived a life of tapas, and discharged his duties from there, ably supported by Shatrughna. With Bharata in-charge and for full 14 years, SRI RAMA’S PADUKAS ruled over the kingdom of Ayodhya! As promised, exactly after 14 years, the Lord came back from exile. With a great sense of satisfaction and fulfillment, Bharata handed over the kingdom to its rightful heir. Bharata’s kingdom was verily at Lord Sri Rama’s lotus feet!!

“O Rama, clarify this doubt of mine. Which is greater? Your lotus FEET or your blessed PADUKAS? The rishis who worshipped your FEET gained your abode; but to Bharata who worshipped your PADUKAS you gave Yourself!”~ Thyagaraja Swami

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Raja Rishi Sri Narahari Tirtha

Shyama Shastri (13-14th century) was an erudite scholar, statesman and the minister of King Gajapati of Kalinga (Orissa) State. When Sri Madhvacharya reached Orissa while returning from Badrikashrama, a Vidvat Sabha was arranged there. Among the galaxy of scholars, pandits and philosophers, Shyama Shastri also was present. Acharya Madhva defeated all the scholars and upheld the supremacy of Dvaita Philosophy. Inspired by the Dvaita philosophy, Shyama Shastri became the disciple of the Acharya and followed him to Udupi. He was initiated into the sanyasa-order and was given the name NARAHARI TIRTHA. 

Narahari Tirtha engaged himself in spreading the doctrines and philosophy of Dvaita. At the time, Madhvacharya sent Narahari Tirtha to Orissa to propagate the Dvaita Philosophy and also to bring back the ancient gold vigraha of Lord Rama known as MOOLA RAMA, along with the vigraha of Seeta. The deities were a part of the Kalinga State treasury. Narahari Tirtha set out to Kalinga and stayed in a remote cave on the outskirts of the city.

Around that time, the king of Kalinga died and his son who was to be the successor was very young. As was the custom prevalent those days, the royal elephant was given a garland and left free to move around. Whomsoever the elephant garlanded would be accepted as the king. The elephant headed straight towards the cave where Narahari Tirtha was residing. Hearing the commotion of people and the elephant’s trumpet, Narahari Tirtha came outside. The elephant immediately placed the garland around Narahari Tirtha’s neck! The people were surprised but happy at the same time because they recognised their own minister, Shyama Shastri in the Sanyasi! Accepting it as the Lord’s Will, Narahari Tirtha ascended the throne. He beautifully integrated his SANYASA DHARMA along with RAJA DHARMA – verily a “RAJA-RISHI”. He diligently and efficiently ruled over the kingdom and its people for a period of twelve years. There are innumerable stone-inscriptions describing the religious as well as the welfare programs undertaken by Narahari Tirtha for the community. When the prince was capable of taking charge of his responsibilities, Narahari Tirtha, the “personification of dispassion”, handed over the kingdom to him and made preparations to leave for Udupi. The young king wished to express his reverence and gratitude to the Acharya who had ruled and looked after the kingdom all these years. He requested Narahari Tirtha to ask for anything that he wanted as a gift, and it would be his fortune and privilege to offer it to the acharya. The Acharya told the king that he did not want anything for himself, but requested for the idols of Moola Rama and Seeta which were in the royal treasury. The king willingly handed over the idols to Narahari Tirtha. 

A contented and fulfilled Narahari Tirtha reached Udupi. He had been able to carry out his Guru’s words and bring the divine idols to Udupi. Sri Madhvacharya was overwhelmed to receive the beautiful Moola Rama and Seeta vigraha-s. The rare and unique idols were crafted by the celestial architect, Viswakarma at the behest of Lord Brahma himself. Through the ages, they reached the Kings of Kalinga and were safely kept in the State treasury. Sri Madhvacharya intuitively knew about the idols and wanted to revive the worship of Moola Rama and Seeta. On receiving the idols from Narahari Tirtha, Sri Madhvacharya placed the idols alongside Sri Krishna and worshipped them. From then onwards, the pontiffs of Madhva Matha have been worshipping the idols. Sri Moola Rama and Seeta vigraha-s were worshipped by Sri Raghavendra Tirtha of Mantralaya who also belonged to the same parampara and the tradition of worshipping and offering services to Sri Moola Rama and Seeta continues to this day by the present Acharya-s. 

Narahari Tirtha was one of the foremost amongst the Haridasa-s of the Bhakti movement. He composed beautiful kirtan-s in the kannada language under the signature of “Narahari” and “Raghupati”. He wrote commentaries on various scriptural texts as well as on Sri Madhvacharya’s works. He built many temples and was instrumental in extensively spreading the philosophy of Sri Madhvacharya. It is said that the well-known Art-forms known as “Yaksha Gana” and “Bayalu Aata” (open theatre drama) were introduced by Narahari Tirtha, as a part of Vaishnava Bhakti Movement.

ससीतामूलरामार्चा कोशे गजपतेः स्थिता।
येनानीता नमस्तस्मै श्रीमन्नृहरिभिक्षवे॥

“Prostrations unto Sri Narahari Tirtha, the Great Ascetic, who brought the icons of Moola Rama and Seeta (to the Madhva Matha) from the treasury of King Gajapati”.

“Sriman Moola Ramo Vijayate! Sri Guru Rajo Vijayate!”

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Ugadi – Nuthana Samvatsara!

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New Year (Nuthana Samvatsara or Nava Varsha) is extremely significant because it represents CHANGE OF SEASON, from the dry and cold winter to the fresh and warm spring! In most of the States in Bharat, the New Year is a celebration of the Spring Season (Vasanta Ritu) in the month of Chaitra. The New Year tithi varies depending on whether the Lunar or the Solar calendar is followed and is known by different names in different regions: Ugadi (Karnataka, Andhra & Telangana), Puthandu (Tamilnadu), Vishu (Kerala), Gudi Padwa (Maharashtra), Baisakhi (Punjab), Bohag Bihu (North-east), Navreh (Kashmir), Odia Nababarsa (Orissa), Pohela Boishakh (Bengal), etc. A few States celebrate New Year in the month of Kartika. With the arrival of Spring, there is a complete and total change or transformation in Nature. Mother Nature is at her creative best – there is newness and freshness everywhere. All around, there is more greenery which acts as a perfect backdrop for the variety of hues and colours! Mother Nature’s Holi celebration with the colours of life! We in turn reciprocate the same bhava by welcoming, celebrating and expressing our love and gratitude, reverence and respect to Mother Nature with various colours. Agriculture starts. Flowers, Fruits and Vegetables are in plenty. New Year is therefore a socio-cultural and religious utsava. Every region has its own unique customs and traditions.

Nature is nothing but an extension of the human mind – as in Nature, so too in our mind. Therefore, New Year is the best time for each and every one of us to make constructive and positive resolutions and work towards them to change for the better – both in our material and spiritual domain. On the Ugadi day, an early morning oil-bath (removes tamas and increases sattva) is a must and new clothes are welcome (discarding the old and accepting the new). The courtyard is decorated with rangoli patterns. Fresh, new and tender mango leaves, clusters of neem leaves and flowers are used to decorate the main door as well as the puja-room door. Haldi and kumkum, rangoli and flowers are used for decorating the threshold. The seasonal Jasmine (mallige) flowers are used extensively. Everyone collectively participates in the Puja-rituals whether at family level or in the temple at community level. The 9 days starting from Ugadi are known as Chaitra or Vasanta or Rama Navaratri, similar to the Sharannavaratri (Dasara) during the autumn season. Prayers are offered to Adi Sakti, the Mother of the Universe who Creates, Nurtures and Nourishes (Motherhood). Sri Rama is invoked since the Navami tithi is the day of His Avatar. Reading of the panchanga (almanac) is considered very important on Ugadi. The Vasanta Navaratri concludes on the Sri Rama Navami day – the auspicious day of Lord Rama’s Avatar, who is the embodiment of Dharma. We invoke Lord Sri Rama’s grace and blessings upon ourselves for the entire year ahead.

Importance of Mango leaves, Neem leaves and Jasmine flowers: Mango leaves symbolise prosperity. They destroy negative energy and reinforce positive energy. Even after they are cut from the branches, they continue to release oxygen for few days and hence keep the air fresh and purify the surroundings. The mango leaves have antibacterial, antiseptic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The green colour signifies balance, tranquility, composure and well-being and have a soothing effect on the mind. The leaves attract insects towards them and hence act as insect repellent. Neem has immense medicinal value. It helps boost the immunity system. Fresh neem leaves and flowers help to fight the seasonal infections (because of change of season) and airborne diseases. The pure white jasmine (mallige) flowers are the seasonal flowers of Spring. During this season, the use of Jasmine flowers is widely encouraged. The white colour and the beautiful fragrance of the fresh jasmine have therapeutic benefits. The positive energy associated with the jasmine soothes the nervous system and calms the mind. Not only for puja, but women are encouraged to adorn their braids with jasmine. In the South, “maggina jade” or “jasmine-flower braid” (braid very artistically decorated with jasmine flowers) is extremely common amongst girls.

Significance of Bevu-Bella (Neem-Jaggery) and Ugadi Pachadi: A mixture of Bevu (Neem Flowers) and Bella (Jaggery) is prepared and offered to the Lord. This is first taken as Prasad at the end of the puja rituals. Life is full of experiences, both pleasant and unpleasant, and no one can avoid them. Both these experiences are yet to come to us during the course of the year. Jaggery and Neem signifying these two types of experiences are offered to the Lord. The sloka chanted while taking the bevu-bella is: “shathaayur vajra dehaaya sarva sampath karaayacha, sarvaarishta vinaashaaya nimbakadala bhakshanam” (by consuming the neem leaves or flowers, we develop a healthy and strong body, gain wealth and prosperity, and all our diseases – physical and mental get destroyed). By the Lord’s grace alone can we hope to go through the various vicissitudes of life. 

The Ugadi Habada Oota (Festival Lunch) comprises of many delicacies and all the members of the family sit down and eat together after the rituals – a mini Pankti (community) Bhojana! This brings in a feeling of togetherness and sense of participation. One of the important item is the Ugadi Pachadi. It is a combination of 6 ingredients which stand for the 6 types of tastes (shad-rasas). The shad-rasas denote the 6 types of emotions which an individual goes through in life. The shad-rasas and the corresponding ingredients are: sweet (jaggery), salt (salt), sour (tamrind), hot or spice (pepper), bitter (neem) and astringent or pungent (raw mango). The Pachadi is offered to the Lord and then taken as prasad. In most of the homes, the Habada Oota is served on a plantain (banana) leaf. The rich green colour not only provides a perfect background for the variety of food, but it denotes calmness & equilibrium. The antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the leaf, as well as its unique aroma is released by the hot food served on it. These benefits reach our system when we eat food served on a plantain leaf. The plantain leaf is placed such that when we sit in front of it, the veins of the upper & lower portion of the leaf are in the “>” shape! This is the sign for “increase” according to mathematics & signifies “progress in life!” May the food offered to the Lord (prasad) and taken by us help us to progress and achieve, to succeed and fulfil, at all levels of our personality – physical, mental, intellectual and spiritual !

नववर्षस्य शुभाशयाः — HAPPY NEW YEAR!

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